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Ideals of the Republic James Schouler

Ideals of the Republic

James Schouler

Published October,MoreIdeals of the Republic By JAMES SCHOULER, LL. D. Author of History of the United States, Eighty Years of Union, Americans of 1776, etc. BOSTON LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY 1908 COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY JAMES SCHOULER, All Rights Rescrvtd Published October, 1908 COLONIAL PRESS, BUctrotytet and Prinitd ty C, H. 1 6 4 fr Ct Butat, U. S. A. PREFACE The purpose of the present volume is to trace out those fundamental ideas, social and political, to which America owes peculiarly her progress and prosperity, and to consider the application of those ideas to present conditions. The substance of these chapters is comprised in occasional lectures given
ISBN : 9781406711004
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320 pages
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Ideals of the Republic By JAMES SCHOULER, LL. D. Author of History of the United States, Eighty Years of Union, Americans of 1776, etc. BOSTON LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY 1908 COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY JAMES SCHOULER, All Rights Rescrvtd Published October,MoreIdeals of the Republic By JAMES SCHOULER, LL. D. Author of History of the United States, Eighty Years of Union, Americans of 1776, etc. BOSTON LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY 1908 COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY JAMES SCHOULER, All Rights Rescrvtd Published October, 1908 COLONIAL PRESS, BUctrotytet and Prinitd ty C, H. 1 6 4 fr Ct Butat, U. S. A. PREFACE The purpose of the present volume is to trace out those fundamental ideas, social and political, to which America owes peculiarly her progress and prosperity, and to consider the application of those ideas to present conditions. The substance of these chapters is comprised in occasional lectures given by the author in 1906-08 at the Johns Hopkins University, to close a connection of seventeen years with its Historical Department. SEPTEMBER, 1908. CONTENTS CHAPTER I THE RIGHTS OF HUMAN NATURE Modern diffusion of news and influence Americas new example to Europe human rights as defined by Decla ration of 1776 origin of such maxims John Locke and our Revolutionary leaders life, liberty and the pur suit of happiness property and family rights mans real entrance into political society rights unalienable and rights by sovereign favor, I CHAPTER II TYPES OF EQUALITY The equal creation of mankind equality in unalienable rights natural endowments as affected by environ and education theories of heredity and of natural equality compared American experience as to leaders excep tionally great social inequalities reconciled a final difficulty as to racial distinctions historical changes, ancient and modern, in leading types ethnological study of the negro Indians, Africans and Asiatics in our American experiment the racial problems of to-day universal brotherhoodin the future, or else the separate independence of races 23 CHAPTER III CIVIL RIGHTS Relation of individual to organized society natural rights as adapted to citizenship definitions under our amended vii viii CONTENTS constitution civil rights and their limits present fun damental maxims considered due process of law, just compensation, habeas corpus, restricted right of search safeguards in criminal prosecution jury trial, evi dence, etc. fair bail, punishments and fines testimony by the accused present methods in criminal procedure imperfect .., ..., ., . 47 CHAPTER IV POLITICAL RIGHTS Political and civil rights distinguished allegiance and mod ern self-expatriation freedom of speech or press freedom to peaceably assemble, petition, etc. local self government favored army, navy, militia treason and its punishment insurrection or civil war American experience in 1866 participation in government as office-holder tests and requirements participation by voting modern extension of suffrage, ballot reforms, etc. closer popular government by referendum or ini tiative strength of an intelligent democracy religious rights 71 CHAPTER V GOVERNMENT BY CONSENT This the fundamental basis in American conception gov ernments many and independent a public strength and security theory of compact or common consent good of the whole, not of greatest number government es sential to society, not a punisher only men born and created equal religious inspiration of our founders other forms of government by consent than republic right to reform or alter institutions respect for custom and existing government the Dorr rebellion and its lesson, .., ., ...